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Keynote Lectures

Implementation Considerations for Network Coding in Sensor Networks
Muriel Medard, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States

Aware ICT
Alois Ferscha, Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, Austria

Beyond Mere Logic - A Vision of Modeling Languages for the 21st Century
Bran Selic, Malina Software Corp., Canada

Detection and Location of Passive and Semi-passive RFID Tags in In-door Environments
Ian White, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

 

Implementation Considerations for Network Coding in Sensor Networks

Muriel Medard
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
United States
 

Brief Bio
Muriel Médard is the Cecil H. Green Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT. She was previously an Assistant Professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and a member of the Coordinated Science Laboratory at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. From 1995 to 1998, she was a Staff Member at MIT Lincoln Laboratory in the Optical Communications and the Advanced Networking Groups. Professor Médard received B.S. degrees in EECS and in Mathematics in 1989, a B.S. degree in Humanities in 1990, a M.S. degree in EE 1991, and a Sc D. degree in EE in 1995, all from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge. She has served as an Associate Editor for the Optical Communications and Networking Series of the IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, the IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology and the OSA Journal of Optical Networking. She has served as a Guest Editor for the IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, the Joint special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory and the IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking on Networking and Information Theory and the IEEE Transactions on Information Forensic and Security: Special Issue on Statistical Methods for Network Security and Forensics. She serves on the board of Governors of the IEEE Information Theory Society as well as having served as President.


Abstract

The implementation of network coding in energy-challenged sensor networks, such body area networks, requires consideration of the energy cost of coding and the benefits that coding can provide in reducing the number of transmissions for successful reception. In this talk, we consider three different aspects of implementing network coding in body area networks, from low-level construction of modules in chips, to full circuit integration, to protocol design. The first concerns the choices of implementation of finite field arithmetic for network coding, trading off computational complexity for retransmission. The second issue considers the overall use of energy, when network coding and physical-layer error correction can be used in a complementary fashion. Finally, we consider energy use when coding is incorporated in the transmission protocol. Coding changes the way in which acknowledgements are managed, as well as forwarding in the types of simple relay scenarios that arise in body area networks.



 

 

Aware ICT

Alois Ferscha
Johannes Kepler Universität Linz
Austria
 

Brief Bio

Alois Ferscha received the Mag. degree in 1984, and a PhD in business informatics in 1990, both from the University of Vienna, Austria. From 1986 through 2000 he was with the Department of Applied Computer Science at the University of Vienna at the levels of assistant and associate professor. In 2000 he joined the University of Linz as full professor where he is now head of the department for Pervasive Computing and the speaker of the JKU Pervasive Computing Initiative.

Currently he is focused on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing, Networked Embedded Systems, Embedded Software Systems, Wireless Communication, Multiuser Cooperation, Dis-tributed Interaction and Distributed Interactive Simulation. He has lead international EU funded projects (EU FP7, FET: SAPERE, HC2, PANORAMA, SOCIONICAL, OPPORTUNITY; EU FP6, FET: BeyondTheHorizon, InterLink, CRUISE), but also national projects (DISPLAYS, SPECTACLES, PowerSaver, WirelessCampus, MobiLearn) research, and holds tight cooperation with industrial stakeholders (SIEMENS Project FACT, IBM Project VRIO). SPECTACLES (Autonomous Wearable Display Systems) in cooperation with Silhouette International, INSTAR (Information and Navigation Systems Through Augmented Reality) (2001-2003), Siemens München, AG, CT-SE-1, BISANTE, EU/IST, Broadband Integrated Satellite Network Traffic Evaluation (1999-2001), Peer-to-Peer Coordination (2001– ), Siemens München, AG, CT-SE-2, Context Framework for Mobile User Applications (2001– ), Siemens München, AG, CT-SE-2, WebWall, Communication via Public Community Displays, Connect Austria (2001-2002), VRIO, Virtual Reality I/O, with GUP JKU, IBM Upper Austria (2002-2003), MobiLearn, Computer Science Any-Time Any-Where, (2002-2004), Mobile Sports Community Services, (SMS Real Time Notification at Vienna City Marathon 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002; Berlin Marathon 2000, 2001, 2002), etc. Ferscha has published more than 150 technical papers on topics related to pervasive and distributed computing. 


Abstract

Pervasive Computing research has shaped a wide spanning research area at the boundaries of computer science and behavioral science, with an impressive outreach to how humankind is experiencing information and communication technologies in every breath of an individuals life. The explosive growth and now globe-spanning availability of data networks, and at the same time the radical miniaturization of ICT electronics and their embedding into literally everything, have lead to reversing the principles of how humans interact with computers. While in the age of "personal computers" the interaction with computers was mostly user initiated, Pervasive Computing attempts for computer system (or in general ICT) designs that relief users from continuos, focussed and attentive interactions via text-input and visual-output devices. Instead, such systems implement implicit interaction principles, where information about a certain situation and observed user behaviour is taken as input, and unobtrusive provision of services or assistance is the output. In other words, the system itself employs mechanism to become "aware" about the situation, the context of it's operation, the user, etc., and responds with services accordingly. 

 

A crucial prerequisite of an ICT system to be “aware” is the ability to autonomously sense and perceive, recognize, and even anticipate phenomena and their consequences in the context of its operation. Early signs of “aware ICT” are reflected in research contributions we have made over the past decade, starting with systems being aware about the physical situation they are operated in (“context-aware ICT"), and later on with systems being aware about the user and his activities (“activity-aware ICT"). More recent trends tend to make ICT systems aware about the social state of an individual (“socially-aware ICT”), and even the affective state and the emotional expressions of a user (“emotion-aware ICT"). Recently we have started to work on ICT systems able to estimate the level of attention an individual allocates to certain sources of information, and to shape the flow of information aligned with the cognitive attention capacity of the recipient ("attention-aware ICT").

 

Towards "Aware ICT", in general we build on multi-sensor based machine learning, recogni-tion and knowledge processing technologies. Implementing algorithmically advanced and computationally efficient software-frameworks for multi-sensor based recognition chains is crucial for the acceptance of aware ICT systems. To demonstrate some of the abilities of aware ICT, I will present our recent research prototypes in the domain of Recognition Architectures and Opportunistic Sensing (EU FP7 FET projects OPPORTUNITY, SOCIONICAL), Networked Embedded Systems and Energy Efficiency (FFG Projects PowerIT, PowerSaver, ZiT Project Sports Community Token), Human Computer Confluence  (EU FP7 FET project HC2), Complex Systems and Coordination Architectures (EU FP7 FET project SAPERE), and Fundamentals of Collective Adaptive Systems (EU FP7 FET Projects PerAda, FoCAS, SAPERE).



 

 

Beyond Mere Logic - A Vision of Modeling Languages for the 21st Century

Bran Selic
Malina Software Corp.
Canada
 

Brief Bio
Bran Selic is President of Malina Software Corp., a Canadian company that provides consulting services to major corporate clients and government institutions worldwide. He is also Director of Advanced technology at Zeligsoft Limited in Canada and a Visiting Scientist at Simula Laboratories in Oslo, Norway. In 2007, Bran retired from IBM Canada, where he was an IBM Distinguished Engineer, and was responsible for setting the strategic direction for software development tools for technical systems. In addition, he is an adjunct professor of computer science at the University of Toronto and at Carleton University (Ottawa, Canada), as well as a guest lecturer and researcher at the University of Sydney (Australia) and at INSA (Lyon, France). With close to 40 years of practical experience in designing and implementing large-scale industrial software systems, Bran has pioneered the application of model-driven development methods in real-time and embedded applications. In this domain, he has led numerous research projects, authored and edited several textbooks and numerous technical papers and chaired major conferences dedicated to these problems. In addition, he was one of the principal contributors to several technical standards related to OMG's Model-Driven Architecture initiative, including chairing the committee responsible for the widely adopted UML modeling language standard. In addition, Bran is one of the founders and a member of the steering committee of the Centre of Excellence for Research in Adaptive Systems (CERAS), an institute established by the Ontario Centres of Excellence and the IBM Center for Advanced Studies. Bran received his Dipl.Ing degree in 1972 and his Mag.Ing degree in 1974, both from the University of Belgrade in Yugoslavia.


Abstract

Traditional computer languages are all ultimately based on mathematical logic, which, after all, is the foundation of practically all of modern mathematics. This is a natural outcome of the initial algorithmically-oriented applications of electronic computing machines and is even revealed in how we've chosen to name these devices (i.e., "computers"). One obvious aspect of this is reflected in the fact that values in programs are typically represented by "logical" data types, such as integers, reals, or strings, which are quite intentionally shorn of any physical connotations. Consequently, in cases where such data is intended to represent relevant physical quantities, such as length or communication bandwidth, the association with the corresponding physical dimensions is typically informal, through convention. This has led to some catastrophic and expensive failures, such as the case of the unfortunate Mars Lander spacecraft, which was attributed to an undetected mismatch between metric and imperial systems measures. The informal nature of the association between values expressed in programs and their corresponding physical dimensions can also greatly complicate proper verification of such software. Whereas a great deal of effort has been expended in evolving various type theories for computer languages in order to avoid mismatches between "pure" data types, very little has been done to help us with problems with "physical" data types.

In the past, this was perceived as a concern primarily for the relatively specialized field of real-time computing. However, as more and more software involves interactions with the physical world, this deficiency is becoming more obvious, more pervasisve, and more critical. Thus, with the growth of the Internet, many modern software systems are physically distributed and, consequently, highly sensitive to physical phenomena, such as communication delays, equipment failures, out-of-sequence events, and the like. In other words, more and more software is becoming "real-time". In this talk, we focus on the issues involved in the somewhat contradictory relationship between the orderly logical world of traditional software and the complex and sometimes unpredictable physical world with which it interacts. Specifically, we look at how computer languages should be constructed to deal more effectively with this complex combination.



 

 

Detection and Location of Passive and Semi-passive RFID Tags in In-door Environments

Ian White
University of Cambridge
United Kingdom
 

Brief Bio

Prof Ian White is currently Master of Jesus College, Cambridge, Deputy Vice Chancellor of the University, van Eck Professor of Engineering, and Head of the Photonic Research Group, comprising CMMPE, CPS and Photonics and Sensors, in the Engineering Department at the University of Cambridge.

He gained his BA and PhD degrees from the University of Cambridge, England in 1980 and 1984. He was then appointed a Research Fellow and Assistant Lecturer at the University of Cambridge before becoming Professor of Physics at the University of Bath in 1990. In 1996 he moved to the University of Bristol and became Head of the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering in 1998, before returning to the University of Cambridge in October 2001.

Ian White has built up a substantial research activity in the field of optoelectronics and optical communications and his team numbers approximately 45 people publishing on average 60 papers a year. In terms of research output, the group is one of the largest in the field of optoelectronic systems in the UK. Highlights of his research have included: the development of the first all-optical laser diode flip flop, the first negative chirp electroabsorption modulator and the invention of a technique for transmitting radio frequency signals over long distances of multimode optical fibre. Several of these advances have already made commercial impact, the offset launch technique for enhancing the bandwidth of optical fibre links having already been adopted within Gigabit Ethernet standard.

He currently chairs the channel model sub-task force of the IEEE 10 GbE LRM standard. The Institution of Electrical Engineers has awarded him the Blumlein-Browne-Willans Prize and the Ambrose Fleming Premium Award. Ian White is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering and of the Institution of Electrical Engineers and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. He is heavily involved in policy development and administration of research and sits on a number of International Conference Committees. He is a Member of the Board of Governors of the IEEE Photonics Society and Editor-in-Chief of Electronics Letters. He has published in excess of 900 journal and conference papers, and 40 patents. He is a co-founder of Zinwave and PervasID


Abstract
This presentation will review the development of Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, which has received increasing research interest in recent years due to its huge potential in asset tracking and localization. The most promising feature of this technique is its ability to identify an RFID tagged object from a distance, which, unlike traditional bar-code techniques, does not require line of sight between the reader and tag. Clear applications have been identified for active, semi-passive and passive RFID tags, with battery-free tags being recognised to be particularly appropriate for very low cost situations. A challenge with such tags however is in ensuring highly reliable detection particularly in environments where in-door features lead to RF nulls. This, in turn affects location accuracy.

In recent years, the problem of nulls has been overcome by using phased array antennas and distributed antenna system (DAS) approaches. For example, researchers have achieved wide area coverage by maximizing the link budget through space time array techniques, smart antennas and digital beam forming. In respect of DAS, excellent performance has been achieved by distributed transmitter and receiver signal control and signal processing, so that >99% reliability has been achieved for tag numbers in excess of 100 over areas of up to 20 m x 20 m. Research has additionally identified that by careful design, larger areas can be monitored using multiple cells where cell to cell interference can be used to enhance read reliability. Wireless antenna nodes can also be used to enhance read range.

This paper will therefore review the current status of this rapidly developing field, and describe recent advances in location.



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